At the time when the sayings of the Teacher Samyak-
sambuddha were collected, the gods offered their praises,
happiness and prosperity prevailed all over the human world,
both gods and men lived in bliss and the piety of king Kema-
dadin also renowned as Ajatasatru -increased spontaneously.
He brought under control without warfare all the five cities
excepting only Vaisali.
When the Tathagata and his two disciples, along with
1. Does this refer to the First Council said to have taken place at
Rajagrha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru? The Pali
CUllavagga does not mention Ajiitasatru in its account of the First
Council; but the Alahaval[lsa, the Samanta-pasadika etc do (See
2500 Years 37). Bu-ston ii. 73ff gives an account of the First
Council based on the Vinaya-ksudraka-vastu (Kg’DuI-ba xi-Sendai
Cat. No 6), in which, also Ajat~satru figure9′ As to the conditions
that necessitated the First Council or ‘the first collection of the
sayings’ of the Buddha, Yuan-chuang (See Watters H. 37) refers to
the general feeling of doubt and consternation and alw of the deep
sense of sorrow with which the people were overpowered during the
Buddha’s nirvli1}a ; the PaIi sources like the Cullavagga mention the
general tendency to laxity expressed for example by Subhadda ; the
Vinaya-k~udraka (quoted by Bu-ston ii. 73) refers to the general
contempt expressed by the gods who said, ‘The Word of the Teacher
is dispersing like smoke. The monks who possessed authority and
power have likewise passed away. Therefore the three codes of
scripture will never come to be expounded.’
2. mi’i-‘jig-rtell, i.e. as contrasted with naga-loka etc.
3. mthon-ldan-dge-ba. V tr ‘the so-called K~emadarSin’ and adds in the
note, ‘The Tibetan word should roughly mean gifted with auspi-
cious vision’. The idea conveyed is, therefore, very near to
5. spon-byed. V & S Vrji. But see D 802 and J 332. For other sources
on AjataSatru’s cam~aign against the Vrjis, see Basham HDA 71ff. , . 6. Sariputra and Maudgalyayana, both of whom-as V adds in note-
died before the Buddha.
1,68,000 arhat-s7 went to eternal sleep and Mahakasyapa8 also
attained the n;rva~ui,9-everybody was plunged into great grief.
All the bhik~u-s, who saw the great Teacher in person,
thought: ‘Because of our own carelessness, we failed to attain
distinction during the life-time of the Buddha.’ And they
resolved to devote themselves exclusively to the Doctrine. The
venerable preceptors also did the same. The younger: bhilqu-s,
who did, not see the Teacher in person., thought t: ‘We are
incapable of practising the Doctrine [Fol 4B] properly, because
we could never see the Teacher himself. We are likely to be
misguided if we do not exert ourselves for the Law.’ Thus
thinking they strove after virtue.
As a result,there greatly swelled the number of those who
attained the ‘four stages of perfection’ .10
Ary’a Anandall frequently preached to the ‘four classes of
followers’.12 Also those who were proficient in the pitaka-s
, 7. According to Vinaya-k~udraka quoted by Bu-ston ii. 73, Sariputra had
80,000 followers, Maudgalyayana 70,000, while the Teacher himself
9. V n ‘Mahakasyapa looked after the Law for about ten years.’
10. ‘bras-bu-bshi-thob-pa. See J 400-‘bras-bu, reward of ascetic exercises,
the various grades of perfection of which four are distinguished, viz.
1) srotiipatti-or as practised srotapanna-, i.e. he who enters the
stream (that takes from the external world to l1irviiTJa), 2) sak rdiiga-
mill, i.e. he who returns once more (for the period of a human birth),
3) allogomin, i.e. he who returns no mor~, being a candidate of
nirv(l1.la, 4) arhanta, the arhat, the finished saint.
V tr ‘the four fruits’ and adds in the note, ‘i.e. the stages of srota-
palll1aka, sakrd’iig’iimin, anogamin and arhat.’
11. kllll-dga’-bo. V n ‘The title arya (‘phags-pa) is added to the early
patriarchs counted in the succession of the seven.’
12. ‘klwr-rnam-pa-bshi. See J 57-The attendants of Buddha’s hearers
divided into four classes (namely, in the earliest times)-l) dge-sloit
(bhik~ll), 2) dge-sloit-ma (bhik~uTJi), 3) dge-bsiien (llpasaka) and 4)
At a later period: 1) mait-thos (srovaka).
2) rait-sahs-I’gyas (pratyeka-buddha), 3) byaiz-clllIb-sems-dpa’ (bodhi-
sat/va), 4) so~so’i-skJ’e-bo-rnams (prthak-jalla), V n ‘bhikslf, blrik~ldll,
srammJera and sramaTJerika.’
(pi(aka-dhara-s) expounded the Doctrine. Consequently, the
ordained monks (pravrajyita-s) lived the life of strict moral care.
The Teacher entrusted Mahakasyapa with the Law.13 He
entrusted lirya Ananda with the Law. This was of special
The king and all the householders-and also the (other)
kings, the merit of whose virtue was dffiicult to measure,-
became disturbed with the multitude of worldly affairs (and) felt
that previously they saw the foremost Teacher of the world
while they now could see only his disciples. Thus they came to
realise the preciousness of the buddha, dharma and sangha and
went on worshipping these with great reverence. They storve
after virtue and thus disappeared quarrels and conflicts.
It is said that in this way the world remained virtuous for
about forty years.
On about the fifteenth year of iirya Ananda’s leadership of
the Doctrine, the young Suvarl).avarl).a15 attained arhat-hood.
His account is already given in the Suvar1Javar1′}a-avadlina. 16
At that time king Ajatasatru thought ~ ‘If even a i person
like Suvarl).avarl).a could smootl11y and without difficulty be
led to arhat-hood by Ananda, he must be a lrlivaka17 like the
Buddha himself. ‘ -Thus thinking, he worshipped for five
years with all sorts of gifts five thousand arhat-s18, inclusive of
Then came to *Magadha from the [Fal SA] city of
*KimmilimaIa19 of the south a brlihmG1Ja belonging to the
13. See Supplementary Note No 1 for Tar’s account of Ananda and of
the succession of the patriarchs as throwing light on his sources.
14. Vomits this sentence in his translation.
15. gser-mdog-gi-rtogs-brjod. V & S Kanakavarl).a.
16. Tg mDo xc 17 SuvarlJavarlla-avadana.
19. S KimmilimaIa and adds in note, which is also quoted by V ‘Whether
here the northern city of Kimpila (whkh is decidedly a corruption of
Kampi1la)-also mentioned by Vasil’ev in Vinaya vol iii-is to be
understood or whether it is Krimila, cannot be decided.’
v.icious*Bb~r-advaja family.20 He was a great expert in magic
and entered into a competition of magic power with the monks.
In the presence of the king and other people, he conjured up
four hills made of gold, silver, crystal and *vaidurya. Each of
these had four pleasure-gardens full of jewels. Each of the
gardens had four lotus ponds fun of all sorts of birds.
Arya Ananda conjured up hordes of wild elephants that
could not be destroyed. They devoured the lotuses and devas-
tated the ponds. The trees fell down by a strong blast of wind.
Nothing remained of the hills or of their boundaries because of
terrible thunder shower.
Arya Ananda transformed his own body into five hundred
bodies. From some of them emitted lustre, some others started
showering.rain and some others showed the four-fold perfor-
mances21 in the sky. From the upper parts of certain other
bodies came out fire and from their lower parts came out
streams of water.
Thus he showed many assorted22 magical feats like these.
[ The brahma?]a of the] vicious *Bharadvaja family and the
assembled people were full of reverence. As a result of the
elaborate exposition of the Doctrine [ by arya Ananda ], eighty
thousa nd people, including five hundred brahma?]a-s like
*Bharadvaja and others, were led to truth within seven days.
On another occ~sion, when arya Ananda was residing at Jetavana,23 the householder called SaI,lavasika24 lavishly enter-
tained the sarrzgha-s for five years. After this, he was ordained
( pravrajyita), being instructed by the iirya [Ananda]. In
course of time, he became proficient in the three pi(aka-s and
eventually attained arhat-hood, free from the two-fold
[Fol 58] In this way on various occasions [lirya Ananda]
led to aI’hat-hood about ten thousand monks. He resided in
the middle of the *Ganga river, where it flowed between the
two lands, [viz. Vaisali and Magadha], so that the *Licchavis
of Vaisali and king Ajatasatru of *Magadha could be equally
favoured with his relics. Being prayed for ordination (upa-
sampada)26 by five hundred sages, he miraculously created an
island in the middle of the river. With his supernatural power
he got the bhik~u-s to congregate there and within an hour
led the five hundred sages from the stage of upasampadii to arhat-hood. That is why, these five hundred were famed as
the five hundred madhylihnika-s, [i.e. the ‘five hundred that
reached aI’hat-hood during mid-day] or the five hundred
madhyiintika-s [i.e. the five hundred that reached aI’hat-hood in
mid-stream].27 The foremost of them was known as Maha-
madhyantika or Maha-madhyahnika.28
After this, he [An and a] attained nirviif}a and the relics of
his mortal body were burnt by self-kindled fire. The ashes
of his bones assumed the form of two balls of gems and were
carried by the waves to the two shores of the river. The
northern one was taken by the Vrjis29 and the southern one
by Ajatasatru. They built caitya-s30 [containing these relics] in
their respective countries.
Ananda served the Law for forty years. The next year
Ajatasatru also died. After being born for a while in the
hell,31 he died again there and was reborn in heaven. He
listened to the doctrine from iirya SaQ.avasika and entered the
. stream [i.e. attained the first stage of perfection, viz. that of